Overview

Although surgeries are all frightening for anyone but advances and improvements in medicine are now benefitting even our pets providing a higher level of care for our pets.

Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical (MIS) technique for viewing the internal structures of the abdomen by introducing a camera and specialised instruments into the body via two small incisions made in the abdominal wall. It is also called ‘keyhole’ surgery since it allows limited abdominal exploration (keyhole) for laparoscope guided organ examination. It is simple and accurate due to which it is used extensively in human medicine.

However, only very few veterinarians offer this type of surgery due to the cost of equipment and training involved. But even though it’s expensive,it provides one of the only available practical means of making repeated direct examination of the various internal organs. Surely due to its handiness, there will be advances in this method in the future to reduce cost and operation time further.

Laparoscopic Techniques Are Used For Many Surgeries Including:

  • Laparoscopic spays
  • Bladder stone removal
  • Biopsies of the liver, kidneys, bladder, intestines, adrenal glands and spleen
  • Foreign body removal (when animals eat something that they shouldn’t have)
  • Gastropexy (a surgery used to permanently suture the stomach to the body wall thereby preventing “bloat”, a deadly disease
  • It is used as a diagnostic tool in canine intraperitoneal disorders
  • Investigation of intestinal torsion, intestinal intussusception, intestinal adhesion, intestinal impaction, mummified fetus, polycystic ovarian and uterine growth, persistent corpus luteum, splenomegaly, splenic abscess, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatomegaly, liposarcoma of liver, bridging fibrosis of liver etc.

Types of Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy can be divided into two types:

  1. Surgical laparoscopy: Procedures like Pyloromyotomy, Placement of feeding tube, Exploratory laparotomy, Gastropexy, Ovariohysterectomy, Nephrectomy, Cholecystectomy, Colectomy, etc. are included in this.
  2. Diagnostic laparoscopy: It is generally carried out for Liver biopsy, Adrenal evaluation, splenic evaluation, Reproductive evaluation, Cholecystocentesis, Pancreatic biopsy, Kidney biopsy, Intestinal biopsy, etc.

Procedure

  • A laparoscope consists of a telescopic rod and lens system connected to a video camera and light source.
  • The surgeon inserts the laparoscope into the patient through a tiny (less than 1 inch) incision.
  • The abdomen is then filled with carbon dioxide to create space to work.

Additional devices like scissors, retractors, and devices are then introduced for placing sutures are introduced and manipulated to complete the surgery.

Advantages

  • It allows a correct diagnosis, specific therapy and accurate prognosis.
  • It causes only minimal damage to the tissues, thus resulting in minimal pain (less discomfort and fewer medications) post surgery and faster recovery as compared to traditional surgeries.
  • Allows repeated examination.
  • Using this technique, the veterinarian is able to observe the pet’s organs, blood vessels, and any diseased tissue under magnification on a large computer monitor which is difficult to do using traditional techniques where often times other organs and structures are in the way.
  • It often requires no more than sedation and a local anesthetic.
  • Reduced chances of hemorrhage.
  • Intraoperative bleeding can be noticed on time, moreover, it is also

The patient animal can go home sooner.