From our experience at Maxvets Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi. Approximately 10% of the total blindness cases in canines, are generally caused by Uveitis. Uveitis is mainly classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis based on the anatomical involvement of the eye. Anterior uveitis is the most commonly occuring form of uveitis with varying incidents reported in India and World.
Uveitis is an Inflammatory process involving the middle of the three levels in the eye. The outermost layer which encloses the eye is the clear cornea and the white sclera. The last layer or innermost layer is the nerve layer or the retina.
The middle layer is rich in blood vessels it is the uveal tract. It is composed of the iris in the front part of the eye, the ciliary body, which produces the ﬂuid (aqueous humor) inside the eye, and the choroid, which nourishes the retina in the back of the eye. This rich blood supply or the uveal tract is a natural target for diseases which initiate in other parts of the body.
When specific segments of the uveal tract are attacked by inflammation, indicating severity, the disease is further classified as iritis which means inﬂammation of the iris.
Anterior uveitis seems benign to begin with, however, it may often lead to severe morbidity if not treated adequately.
Causes of Uveitis
Uveitis is associated with many diseases. In dogs the main cause of Uveitis are Autoimmune disorder, Localized tumors or cancer, Trauma or injury, Toxemia, Metabolic disease, Lyme or Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Distemper etc. In the cats, uveitis may be a consequence of Feline Leukemia Virus, Feline Infectious Peritonitis or many other diseases.
Other causes of uveitis are local bacterial infection, immune-mediated, and parasitic diseases. If the actual cause is known, a more specific treatment is possible. It is important to test for some infectious diseases to make sure there is not an underlying cause for the inﬂammation, but unfortunately, in up to 75% of the cases, the cause is never determined.
Treatment of Uveitis in cats and dogs
Aggressive treatment of Uveitis is needed in order to prevent glaucoma, scarring of the uveal structures, and blindness which is very likely. Different medications may be used to treat the underlying/original cause of the uveitis and to attempt to control the inﬂammation itself.
If you have any further questions or concerns regarding uveitis, please do not hesitate to contact us at Maxvets Super Specialty Hospital in East of Kailash, Delhi.